## Strategy puzzles

Five pirates need to divide 100 Gold Coins. Pirates have hierarchy, from Level 5 to level 1. The level-5 pirate proposes a division plan and all the pirates vote on it. If at least 50% of the pirates agree on the plan, the gold is split according to the proposal. If not, level-5 pirate is kicked from the ship, and the level-4 pirate now proposes a plan. This process continues until a proposal is accepted. All pirates are extremely smart and extremely greedy. How does level-5 Pirate divide the treasure?

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Solution
Source: Technical Interview
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Hundred tigers and one sheep are put on a magic island that only has grass. Tigers can live on grass, but they want to eat sheep. If a Tiger bites the Sheep then it will become a sheep itself. If 2 tigers attack a sheep, only the first tiger to bite converts into a sheep. Tigers don’t mind being a sheep, but they have a risk of getting eaten by another tiger. All tigers are intelligent and want to survive. Will the sheep survive?

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Solution
Source: Common
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A duck is swimming at the center of a circular lake. A fox is waiting at the shore, not able to swim, willing to eat the duck. It may move around the whole lake with a speed four times faster than the duck can swim. As soon as duck reaches the surface, it can fly, but not within the pond. Can the duck always reach the shore without being eaten by the fox?

Hint
Solution
Source: Technical Interview
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100 prisoners are lined up and assigned a random hat, either red or blue. There can be any number of red hats. Each prisoner can see the hats in front of him but not behind. Starting with the prisoner in the back of the line and moving forward, they must each, in turn, say only one word which must be "red" or "blue". If the word matches their hat color they are released, if not, they are killed on the spot. They can hear each others answers, no matter how far they are on the line. A friendly guard warns them of this test one hour beforehand and tells them that they can formulate a plan where by following the stated rules, 99 of the 100 prisoners will definitely survive, and 1 has a 50/50 chance of survival. What is the plan to achieve the goal?

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A traveler wants to go to the mystic. He meets a pair of twins at a fork in the road: one path leads to the jungle, the other to the mystic. One of the twins always says the truth, the other always lies. What yes/no question should he ask one of the twins to determine the path that goes to the mystic?

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Solution
Source: Common
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