## Probability puzzles

A postman brought N letters to a house with two letter-boxes. Since the two boxes were empty, he puts 1 mail in each of the two mail boxes. Then he chooses one of boxes with probability proportional to number of letters present in that box, and puts the 3rd letter in it. He does this for all subsequent letters. What is the expected number of letters in the box with lower letters?

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Solution
Source: P. Winkler
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You have an opportunity to make one bid on an object, whose value to its owner is, as far as you know, uniformly random integer between \$0 and \$100. What you do know is that you are so much better at operating the widget than he is, that its value to you is 80% greater than its value to him. If you offer more than the widget is worth to the owner, he will sell it. But you get only one shot. How much should you bid? For example, if its actual value is \$10, you bid & win at \$11, and sell it for \$18, making profit. But if you bid more than \$18, you make lose! But since u don't know how much its actual price is, how do u bid in order to make some profit?

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Solution
Source: P. Winkler
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On a given highway, trucks arrive at the station according to a Poisson process with Lambda = 0.1/minute. This means that after a truck is just passed, the time for the next truck to arrive is an exponential random number with average arrival time of 10 minutes. Your car just broke on this highway, and you are waiting for the next truck for hitchhiking, what is your expected waiting time? On average how many minutes ago the last truck left?

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A very sharp, consistently skillful blind archer aimed for the center of a circular board and shot 2 arrows. He is expected to hit the aim, but doesn't hit it for sure. The archer is told that his first shot is better than second. He tried one more shot. What is the probability that this 3rd shot is the best shot among 3?
(ie, Probability that 3rd arrow lands closer to center than his first two shots?)

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Warning: I could not solve it.
In a room stand n armed and angry people. At each chime of a clock, everyone simultaneously spins around and shoots a random other person. The persons shot fall dead and the survivors spin and shoot again at the next chime. Eventually, either everyone is dead or there is a single survivor.

As n grows, what is the limiting probabality that there will be a survivor. :)

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