## Hard puzzles

You are given N coins which look identical (assume N = 2^k). But actually some of them are pure gold coins (hence are heavy) and the rest are aluminum coins with thin gold plating (light). You are given one beam balance with two pans. What is the number of weighing required to separate the gold from fake coins? (all gold coins have equal weights & all fake coins too have the same weight)

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Solution
Source: CSEblog
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Two immensely intelligent players, A & B, engage in a game, the rules of which are as follows. For some natural number N, the board consists of numbers from 1 to N. Each player takes turns to strike off a (new) number from the board. But, to make sure N does't affect who wins, there is an added rule. Once you strike of a number, you also have to strike off all its divisors in that same chance, irrespective of whether any of those divisors were already marked. The player to strike off the last number on the board wins. Can A construct a winning strategy?

Solution
Source: Krishnamurthy Iyer
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N undercover agents have been found in don's lair. Less than half of them are terrorists and the rest are anti-terrorists. The nature of their job is so secret that there is no proof what so ever to testify who is who. Although each of them knows who was actual terrorist and who was anti because they worked in teams. A query consists of asking person i if person j is Anti. Anti will always speak truth but a terrorist may lie to confuse you. The goal is to find out one anti in fewest queries.

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A group of 5 people want to keep their secret document in a safe. They want to make sure that in future, only a majority (>=3) can open the safe. So they want to put some locks on the safe, each of the locks have to be opened to access the safe. Each lock can have multiple keys; but each key only opens one lock. How many locks are required at the minimum? How many keys will each member carry?

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We have a beam balance (with two pans to compare weights) and a positive integer N. How do we select fewest number of pebbles to weigh all possible integers from 1 to N

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