Hard puzzles




Hard Probability

You are taking out candies one by one from a jar that has 10 red candies, 20 blue candies, and 30 green candies in it. What is the probability that there are at least 1 blue candy and 1 green candy left in the jar when you have taken out all the red candies? (Candies of same color are indistinguishable!)

Hint
Answer
Solution


Hard Strategy

An aircraft hovers above sea, trying to catch a submarine moving with a constant velocity under the sea. The submarine is completely invisible, but using a human radar only once, the aircraft knows the exact location of submarine under the sea. The direction of submarine is unknown, but constant. The aircraft can move at twice the speed of submarine. As soon as the aircraft is just vertically above the submarine, Aircrafet can magnetically pick it up. How does the aircraft catch the submarine? How much time ill it take?

PS: This scene is from X-men: First Class. Good x-men are in the aircraft called blackbird, human radar is Banshee, Magnet is Magneto. Bad x-men are in submarine, with Sebastian Shaw is about to cause a war, better catch him soon!

Hint
Solution
Source: Inspired from Rustan Leino's puzzle
Enable Like and Comment


Hard Strategy

A spy is located on a one-dimensional line. At time 0, the spy is at location A. With each time interval, the spy moves B units to the right (if B is negative, the spy is moving left). A and B are fixed integers, but they are unknown to you. You are to catch the spy. The means by which you can attempt to do that is: at each time interval (starting at time 0), you can choose a location on the line and ask whether or not the spy is currently at that location. That is, you will ask a question like "Is the spy currently at location 27?" and you will get a yes/no answer. Devise an algorithm that will eventually find the spy

Solution
Source: Written Test; leino
Enable Like and Comment


Hard Strategy

You are given N coins which look identical (assume N = 2^k). But actually some of them are pure gold coins (hence are heavy) and the rest are aluminum coins with thin gold plating (light). You are given one beam balance with two pans. What is the number of weighing required to separate the gold from fake coins? (all gold coins have equal weights & all fake coins too have the same weight)

Hint
Solution
Source: CSEblog
Enable Like and Comment


Hard Strategy

Two immensely intelligent players, A & B, engage in a game, the rules of which are as follows. For some natural number N, the board consists of numbers from 1 to N. Each player takes turns to strike off a (new) number from the board. But, to make sure N does't affect who wins, there is an added rule. Once you strike of a number, you also have to strike off all its divisors in that same chance, irrespective of whether any of those divisors were already marked. The player to strike off the last number on the board wins. Can A construct a winning strategy?

Solution
Source: Krishnamurthy Iyer
Enable Like and Comment




© BRAINSTELLAR